Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|6 Months Ended
Jun. 30, 2019
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Note 2 – Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
For the three and six months ended June 30, 2019 and 2018, our revenues have come principally from OTC healthcare contract manufacturing and sales to retail customers of dietary supplement products.
Basis of Presentation
The unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles for interim financial statements and the rules of the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) applicable to interim financial statements, and therefore do not include all disclosures that might normally be required for financial statements prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”). The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared by management without audit and should be read in conjunction with our audited consolidated financial statements, including the notes thereto, appearing in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018. In the opinion of management, all adjustments necessary for a fair presentation of the consolidated financial position, consolidated results of operations and consolidated cash flows, for the periods indicated, have been made. The results of operations for the three and six months ended June 30, 2019 are not necessarily indicative of operating results that may be achieved over the course of the full year.
Product Innovation, Seasonality of the Business and Liquidity
Our net sales are derived principally from our contract manufacturing of OTC healthcare and dietary supplement products sold in the United States. In addition, we are engaged in marketing activities for the TK Supplements® product line of dietary supplements.
Our sales are influenced by and subject to (i) the scope and timing of TK Supplements® product market acceptance, and (ii) fluctuations in the timing of purchase and the ultimate level of demand for the OTC healthcare products that we manufacture for others, which are a function of the timing, length and severity of each cold season. Generally, a cold season is defined as the period from September to March when the incidence of the common cold rises as a consequence of the change in weather and other factors. We generally experience in the first, third and fourth quarters higher net sales from our contract manufacturing services. Revenues are generally at their lowest levels in the second quarter, when customer demand generally declines.
As a consequence of the scope and timing of our TK Supplements® product market acceptance and the seasonality of our business, we realize variations in operating results and demand for working capital from quarter to quarter. As of June 30, 2019, we had working capital of approximately $12.5 million, including $4.7 million of marketable debt securities, which are available for sale. We believe our current working capital at June 30, 2019 is at an acceptable and adequate level to support our business for at least the next twelve months.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements and the accompanying notes thereto, in conformity with GAAP, requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the respective reporting periods. Examples include the provision for bad debt, sales returns and allowances, inventory obsolescence, useful lives of property and equipment, impairment of property and equipment, income tax valuations and assumptions related to accrued advertising. When providing for the appropriate sales returns, allowances, cash discounts and cooperative incentive promotion costs, we apply a uniform and consistent method for making certain assumptions for estimating these provisions. These estimates and assumptions are based on historical experience, current trends and other factors that management believes to be relevant at the time the financial statements are prepared. Management reviews the accounting policies, assumptions, estimates and judgments on a quarterly basis. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
We consider all highly liquid investments with a maturity of three months or less at the time of purchase to be cash equivalents. Cash equivalents include cash on hand and monies invested in money market funds. The carrying amount approximates the fair market value due to the short-term maturity of these investments.
Marketable Debt Securities
We have classified our investments in marketable debt securities as available-for-sale and as a current asset. Our investments in marketable debt securities are carried at fair value, with unrealized gains and losses included as a separate component of stockholders’ equity. Realized gains and losses from our marketable debt securities are recorded as interest income (expense). We initiated short term investments in marketable debt securities, which carry maturity dates between one and three years from date of purchase with interest rates of 1.99% - 3.08%, during the first two quarters of Fiscal 2019. For the three months and six months ended June 30, 2019, we reported an unrealized gain of $8,000 and $23,000, respectively, and an accumulated unrealized loss of $1,000. Unrealized gains and losses are classified as other comprehensive income (loss) and the cost is determined on a specific identification basis. The following is a summary of the components of our marketable debt securities and the underlying fair value input level tier hierarchy (see long-lived assets below) (in thousands):
We have determined that the unrealized losses are deemed to be temporary as of June 30, 2019. We believe that the unrealized losses generally are the result of increases in the risk premiums required by market participants rather than an adverse change in cash flows or a fundamental weakness in the credit quality of the issuer or underlying assets. We have the ability and intent to hold these investments until a recovery of fair value, which may be maturity. We do not consider the investment in corporate bonds to be other-than-temporarily impaired at June 30, 2019.
Inventory is valued at the lower of cost, determined on a first-in, first-out basis (FIFO), or net realizable value. Inventory items are analyzed to determine cost and the net realizable value and appropriate valuation adjustments are established. At June 30, 2019, after the 2019 write-off of certain inventory previously recorded, the financial statements include adjustments to reduce inventory for excess, obsolete or short-dated shelf-life inventory of $382,000, inclusive of adjustments of $307,000 for product samples of TK Supplements® products. At June 30, 2019, the inventory adjustment for excess, obsolete or short-dated shelf-life inventory included $113,000 in finished goods and $269,000 in raw material and work in process. At December 31, 2018, the financial statements include adjustments to reduce inventory for excess, obsolete or short-dated shelf-life inventory of $377,000, inclusive of an adjustment of $270,000 for product samples of TK Supplements® products. At December 31, 2018, the inventory adjustment for excess, obsolete or short-dated shelf-life inventory included $319,000 in finished goods and $58,000 in raw material and work in process. The components of inventory are as follows (in thousands):
Property, Plant and Equipment
Property, plant and equipment are recorded at cost. We use the straight-line method in computing depreciation for financial reporting purposes. Depreciation expense is computed in accordance with the following ranges of estimated asset lives: building and improvements –ten to thirty-nine years; machinery and equipment – three to seven years; computer equipment and software – three to five years; and furniture and fixtures – five years. We have reviewed our property, plant and equipment for the six months ended June 30, 2019 and 2018 and concluded there were no impairments or changes in useful lives.
Concentration of Risks
Future revenues, costs, margins and profits will continue to be influenced by our ability to maintain our manufacturing availability and capacity together with our marketing and distribution capabilities and the regulatory requirements associated with the development of OTC healthcare products in order to compete on a national level and/or international level.
Our business is subject to federal and state laws and regulations adopted for the health and safety of users of our products. The manufacturing and distribution of OTC healthcare and dietary supplement products are subject to regulations by various federal, state and local agencies, including the Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”) and, as applicable, the Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia of the United States.
Financial instruments that potentially subject us to significant concentrations of credit risk consist principally of cash investments, marketable debt securities, and trade accounts receivable. Our marketable securities are fixed income investments, which are highly liquid and can be readily purchased or sold through established markets.
We maintain cash and cash equivalents with certain major financial institutions. As of June 30, 2019, our cash and cash equivalents balance was $1.0 million and our bank balance was $1.2 million. Of the total bank balance, $250,000 was covered by federal depository insurance and $0.9 million was uninsured at June 30, 2019.
Trade accounts receivable potentially subject us to credit concentrations from time-to-time as a consequence of the timing, payment pattern and ultimate purchase volumes or shipping schedules with our customers. We extend credit to our customers based upon an evaluation of the customer’s financial condition and credit history and generally we do not require collateral. Our customers include consumer product companies and large national chain, regional, specialty and local retail stores. These credit concentrations may impact our overall exposure to credit risk, either positively or negatively, in that our customers may be similarly affected by changes in economic, regulatory or other conditions that may impact the timing and collectability of amounts due to us. As a consequence of an evaluation of our customer’s financial condition, payment patterns, balance due to us and other factors, we did not offset our account receivable with an allowance for bad debt at June 30, 2019 and December 31, 2018.
We review our carrying value of our long-lived assets with definite lives whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the assets may not be recoverable. When indicators of impairment exist, we determine whether the estimated undiscounted sum of the future cash flows of such assets is less than their carrying amounts. If less, an impairment loss is recognized in the amount, if any, by which the carrying amount of such assets exceeds their respective fair values. The determination of fair value is based on quoted market prices in active markets, if available, or independent appraisals; sales price negotiations; or projected future cash flows discounted at a rate determined by management to be commensurate with our business risk. The estimation of fair value utilizing discounted forecasted cash flows includes significant judgments regarding assumptions of revenue, operating and marketing costs; selling and administrative expenses; interest rates; property and equipment additions and retirements; industry competition; and general economic and business conditions, among other factors.
Fair value is based on the prices that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. In order to increase consistency and comparability in fair value measurements, a three-tier fair value hierarchy prioritizes the inputs used to measure fair value. These tiers include: Level 1, defined as observable inputs such as quoted prices in active markets; Level 2, defined as inputs other than quoted prices in active markets that are either directly or indirectly observable; and Level 3, defined as unobservable inputs for which little or no market data exists, therefore requiring an entity to develop its own assumptions.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
Cash and cash equivalents, marketable debt securities, accounts receivable, accounts payable, and accrued expenses are reflected in the Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements at carrying value which approximates fair value. We account for our marketable debt securities at fair value pursuant to GAAP, with the net unrealized gains or losses reported as a component of accumulated other comprehensive income or loss.
There were no transfers of marketable debt securities between Levels 1, 2 or 3 for the six months ended June 30, 2019.
We account for revenue in accordance with Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) Topic 606, which requires revenue recognized to represent the transfer of promised goods or services to customers at an amount that reflects the consideration which is expected to be received in exchange for those goods or services. The Company recognizes revenue when its performance obligations with its customers have been satisfied. At contract inception, the Company determines if a contract is within the scope of Topic 606 and then evaluates the contract using the following five steps: (1) identify the contract with the customer; (2) identify the performance obligations; (3) determine the transaction price; (4) allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations; and (5) recognize revenue when (or as) the entity satisfies a performance obligation.
We adopted ASC 606 as of January 1, 2018 using the modified retrospective method. There were no changes to our opening balances upon the adoption of ASC 606 and the amounts which would have been reported under the standards in effect prior to adoption.
We generate sales principally through two types of customers, contract manufacturing and retail customers. Sales from product shipments to contract manufacturing and retailer customers are recognized at the time ownership is transferred to the customer. Net sales from contract manufacturing and retail customers was $1.5 million and $0.2 million, respectively, for the three months ended June 30, 2019 and $3.1 million and $80,000, respectively, for the three months ended June 30, 2018. Net sales from contract manufacturing and retail customers was $3.6 million and $0.4 million, respectively, for the six months ended June 30, 2019 and $6.4 million and $0.2 million, respectively, for the six months ended June 30, 2018. Revenue from retailer customers is reduced for trade promotions, estimated sales returns, cash discounts and other allowances in the same period as the related sales are recorded. No such allowance is applicable to our contract manufacturing customers. We make estimates of potential future product returns and other allowances related to current period revenue. We analyze historical returns, current trends, and changes in customer and consumer demand when evaluating the adequacy of the sales returns and other allowances.
A performance obligation is a promise in a contract to transfer a distinct good or service to the customer, and is the unit of account in ASC 606. A contract’s transaction price is allocated to each distinct performance obligation and recognized as revenue when, or as, the performance obligation is satisfied. The combined duties and responsibilities within each contract will be considered one single performance obligation under ASC 606 as these items would not be separately identifiable from each other promise in the contract and we provide a significant service of integrating the duties with other promises in the contracts.
The transaction price is fixed based upon either (i) a combined Master Agreement and each related purchase order, or (ii) if there is no Master Agreement, the price per the individual purchase order received from each customer. The customers are invoiced at an agreed upon contractual price for each unit ordered and delivered by the Company.
Consistent with Company practice prior to the adoption of ASC 606, the Company does not collect sales tax or other similar taxes from customers. As such, there is no effect on the measurement of the transaction price.
Recognize Revenue When the Company Satisfies a Performance Obligation
Performance obligations related to contract manufacturing and retail customers are satisfied at a point in time when the goods are shipped to the customer as (i) the Company has transferred control of the assets to the customers upon shipping, and (ii) the customer obtains title and assumes the risks and rewards of ownership after the goods are shipped.
We do not accept returns in the contract manufacturing revenue stream. Our return policy for retailer customers accommodates returns for (i) discontinued products, (ii) store closings and (iii) products that have reached or exceeded their designated expiration date. We do not impose a period of time within which product may be returned. All requests for product returns must be submitted to us for pre-approval. The main components of our returns policy are: (i) we will accept returns that are due to damaged product that is un-saleable and such return request activity falls within an acceptable range, (ii) we will accept returns for products that have reached or exceeded designated expiration dates and (iii) we will accept returns in the event that we discontinue a product provided that the customer will have the right to return only such items that it purchased directly from us. We will not accept return requests pertaining to customer inventory “Overstocking” or “Resets”. We will accept return requests for only products in its intended package configuration. We reserve the right to terminate shipment of product to customers who have made unauthorized deductions contrary to our return policy or pursue other methods of reimbursement. We compensate the customer for authorized returns by means of a credit applied to amounts owed or to be owed and in the case of discontinued product only, also by way of an exchange. We do not have any significant product exchange history.
Under ASC 606, we continue to recognize contract manufacturing and retail customers at a point in time as the Company has an enforceable right to payment for goods as products are shipped to customers.
As of June 30, 2019 and December 31, 2018, we included a provision for sales allowances from operations of $2,300 and $1,000, respectively, which are reported as a reduction to account receivables. Additionally, accrued advertising and other allowances from discontinued operations as of June 30, 2019 included (i) $138,000 for estimated returns, which is reported as a reduction to account receivables, and (ii) $76,000 for cooperative incentive promotion costs, which is reported as accrued advertising and other allowances under current liabilities. As of December 31, 2018, accrued advertising and other allowances from discontinued operations included (i) $181,000 for estimated future sales returns, which is reported as a reduction to account receivables, and (ii) $88,000 for cooperative incentive promotion costs, which is reported as accrued advertising and other allowances under current liabilities.
As of June 30, 2019, we have deferred revenue of $302,000 in relation to Research and Development (“R&D”) stability and release testing programs. Deferred revenues primarily consist of amounts that have been billed to or received from customers in advance of revenue recognition and prepayments received from customers in advance for implementation, maintenance and other services, as well as initial subscription fees. We recognize deferred revenues as revenues when the services are performed and the corresponding revenue recognition criteria are met. Customer prepayments are generally applied against invoices issued to customers when services are performed and billed.
The following table disaggregates the Company’s deferred revenue by recognition period (in thousands):
Disaggregation of Revenue
We disaggregate revenue from contracts with customers into two categories: contract manufacturing and retail customers. The Company determined that disaggregating revenue into these categories achieves the disclosure objective to depict how the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows are affected by economic factors.
The following table disaggregates the Company’s revenue by revenue source for the three and six months ended June 30, 2019 and 2018 (in thousands):
Shipping and Handling Activities
We account for shipping and handling activities we perform after a customer obtains control of the good as activities to fulfill the promise to transfer the good.
Advertising and Incentive Promotions
Advertising and incentive promotion costs are expensed within the period in which they are utilized. Advertising and incentive promotion expense is comprised of (i) media advertising, presented as part of sales and marketing expense, (ii) cooperative incentive promotions and coupon program expenses, which are accounted for as part of net sales, and (iii) free product, which is accounted for as part of cost of sales. Advertising and incentive promotion expenses incurred for the three months ended June 30, 2019 and 2018 were $55,000 and $39,000, respectively. Advertising and incentive promotion expenses incurred for the six months ended June 30, 2019 and 2018 were $82,000 and $72,000, respectively.
We recognize all share-based payments to employees and directors, including grants of stock options, as compensation expense in the financial statements based on their fair values. Fair values of stock options are determined through the use of the Black-Scholes option pricing model. The compensation cost is recognized as an expense over the requisite service period of the award, which usually coincides with the vesting period. We account for forfeitures as they occur.
Stock and stock options for the purchase of our common stock, have been granted to both employees and non-employees pursuant to the terms of certain agreements and stock option plans (see Note 4). Stock options are exercisable during a period determined by us, but in no event later than seven years from the date granted.
Research and Development
Research and development costs are charged to operations in the period incurred. Research and development costs incurred for the three months ended June 30, 2019 and 2018 were $95,000 and $87,000, respectively. Research and development costs incurred for the six months ended June 30, 2019 and 2018 were $189,000 and $174,000, respectively. Research and development costs are principally related to personnel expenses and new product development initiatives and costs associated with our OTC healthcare products, dietary supplements and other remedies.
We utilize the asset and liability approach, which requires the recognition of deferred tax assets and liabilities for the future tax consequences of events that have been recognized in our financial statements or tax returns. In estimating future tax consequences, we generally consider all expected future events other than enactments of changes in the tax law or rates. Until sufficient taxable income to offset the temporary timing differences attributable to operations and the tax deductions attributable to option, warrant and stock activities are assured, a valuation allowance equaling the total deferred tax asset is being provided.
We utilize a two-step approach to recognizing and measuring uncertain tax positions. The first step is to evaluate the tax position for recognition by determining if the weight of available evidence indicates that it is more likely than not that the position will be sustained on audit, including resolution of related appeals or litigation processes, if any. The second step is to measure the tax benefit as the largest amount which is more than fifty percent likely of being realized upon ultimate settlement. Any interest or penalties related to income taxes will be recorded as interest or administrative expense, respectively.
As a result of our losses from continuing operations, we have recorded a full valuation allowance against a net deferred tax asset. Additionally, we have not recorded a liability for unrecognized tax benefit.
Recently Adopted Accounting Standards
In February 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842) in order to increase transparency and comparability among organizations by, among other provisions, recognizing lease assets and lease liabilities on the balance sheet for those leases classified as operating leases under previous GAAP. For public companies, ASU 2016-02 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018 (including interim periods within those periods) using a modified retrospective approach and early adoption is permitted. In transition, entities may also elect a package of practical expedients that must be applied in its entirety to all leases commencing before the adoption date, unless the lease is modified, and permits entities to not reassess (a) the existence of a lease, (b) lease classification or (c) determination of initial direct costs, as of the adoption date, which effectively allows entities to carryforward accounting conclusions under previous GAAP. In July 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-11, Leases (Topic 842): Targeted Improvements, which provides entities an optional transition method to apply the guidance under Topic 842 as of the adoption date, rather than as of the earliest period presented. We adopted Topic 842 on January 1, 2019, using the optional transition method to apply the new guidance as of January 1, 2019, rather than as of the earliest period presented, and elected the package of practical expedients described above. The adoption of this standard did not have a material impact on our condensed consolidated financial statements.
In August 2018, the SEC adopted SEC Final Rule Release No. 33-10532, Disclosure Update and Simplification, which amended certain disclosure requirements that were redundant, duplicative, overlapping, outdated or superseded. In addition, the amendments expanded the disclosure requirements regarding stockholders’ equity for interim financial statements. Under the amendments, a description of the changes in each caption of stockholders’ equity presented in the balance sheet must be provided in a note or separate statement. The description must include a reconciliation of the beginning balance to the ending balance of each period for which a statement of comprehensive income is required to be filed. The condensed consolidated financial statements included in this Quarterly Report include a reconciliation of the beginning balance to the ending balance of stockholders’ equity for each period in which a statement of operations and comprehensive income (loss) is provided.
Recently Issued Accounting Standards, Not Yet Adopted
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-13, “Financial Instruments—Credit Losses.” The standard modifies the impairment model for most financial assets, including trade accounts receivables and loans, and will require the use of an “expected loss” model for instruments measured at amortized cost. Under this model, entities will be required to estimate the lifetime expected credit loss on such instruments and record an allowance to offset the amortized cost basis of the financial asset, resulting in a net presentation of the amount expected to be collected on the financial asset. The effective date of the standard is for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019 with early adoption permitted. We are currently evaluating the potential impact of the adoption of this update on our consolidated financial statements.