Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)
|9 Months Ended
Sep. 30, 2020
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]
|Basis of Presentation
Basis of Presentation
The unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles for interim financial statements and the rules of the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) applicable to interim financial statements, and therefore do not include all disclosures that might normally be required for financial statements prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”). The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared by management without audit and should be read in conjunction with our audited consolidated financial statements, including the notes thereto, appearing in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019. In the opinion of management, all adjustments necessary for a fair presentation of the consolidated financial position, consolidated results of operations and other comprehensive loss and consolidated cash flows, for the periods indicated, have been made. The results of operations for the nine months ended September 30, 2020 are not necessarily indicative of operating results that may be achieved over the course of the full year.
|Product Innovation, Seasonality of the Business and Liquidity
Product Innovation, Seasonality of the Business and Liquidity
Our net sales are derived principally from our contract manufacturing of OTC healthcare products and the sale of our dietary supplement products in the United States. In addition, we are engaged in marketing activities for our TK Supplements® product line of dietary supplements.
Our sales are influenced by and subject to (i) the timing of new TK Supplements® retail distribution into the marketplace, and (ii) fluctuations in the timing of purchase and the ultimate level of demand for the OTC healthcare and cold remedy products that we manufacture for others, which are a function of the timing, length and severity of each cold season. Generally, a cold season is defined as the period from September to March when the incidence of the common cold rises as a consequence of the change in weather and other factors. We generally experience in the first, third and fourth quarter higher levels of net sales from our contract manufacturing of OTC healthcare and cold remedy products. Revenues are generally at their lowest levels in the second quarter when customer demand generally declines, although we did experience higher than normal net sales for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020, primarily as a result of increased customer demand for our OTC healthcare and cold remedy products as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic.
As a consequence of the varied timing of new TK Supplements® retail distribution into the marketplace and the seasonality of our business, we realize variations in operating results and demand for working capital from quarter to quarter. As of September 30, 2020, we had working capital of approximately $15.8 million, including $1.4 million in marketable securities available for sale. We believe our current working capital at September 30, 2020 is at an acceptable and adequate level to support our business for at least the next twelve months after the date that the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements are issued.
The COVID-19 pandemic has not had a material impact on our business to date, although we did experience higher than normal net sales for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020, primarily as a result of increased customer demand for OTC healthcare and cold remedy products as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic.
On October 23, 2020, we acquired a Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) accredited laboratory that offers a variety of important medical tests, including, among others, COVID-19 diagnostic tests. While we expect revenues to increase as result of our new business line, we will need to make substantial investments to secure the necessary equipment, supplies and personnel to provide these testing services. There can be no assurance that our efforts to offer and perform COVID-19 testing will be successful and that we will be able to generate a profit.
The ultimate impact of COVID-19 on our business will depend on many factors beyond our knowledge or control, including the duration and severity of the outbreak, the timing, scope and effectiveness of federal, state and local governmental responses to the COVID-19 pandemic, and the extent of business disruptions caused by the pandemic, including as a result of travel restrictions, quarantines, social distancing requirements and business closures in the United States and other countries in order to contain and treat the virus. We may also be impacted by changes in the severity of the COVID-19 pandemic at different times in the various cities and regions where we operate and offer diagnostic testing services. For these reasons, we are unable to estimate the extent to which COVID-19 will negatively impact our financial results or liquidity.
The COVID-19 pandemic has also had a negative impact on the global capital markets and economies worldwide and could ultimately have a material adverse impact on our ability to raise capital needed to operate our business. In addition, a prolonged recession or market correction resulting from the spread of the coronavirus could affect the value of our common stock.
September 2020 Notes
On September 15, 2020, we issued two unsecured, partially convertible, promissory notes (the “September 2020 Notes”) for an aggregate principal amount of $10 million to two investors. We intend to use the proceeds from the September 2020 Notes for working capital and general corporate purposes, which may include capital expenditures, product development and commercialization expenditures, and acquisitions of companies, businesses, technologies and products.
On September 23, 2020 we entered into an at-the-market (“ATM”) equity offering sales agreement (the “ATM Sales Agreement”) with A.G.P./Alliance Global Partners (“A.G.P.”), under which we may, from time to time, offer and sell shares of our common stock through A.G.P., as sales agent, subject to the terms and conditions of the ATM Sales Agreement. We will pay A.G.P. a fixed commission rate of 3.0% of the aggregate gross proceeds from the sale of any shares under the ATM Sales Agreement. Pursuant to the terms of the ATM Sales Agreement, we reimbursed A.G.P. for certain out-of-pocket expenses, including the fees and disbursements of counsel to A.G.P., incurred in connection with establishing the ATM facility and have provided A.G.P. with customary indemnification rights. As of the date of this report, we have not sold any shares under the ATM facility.
|Use of Estimates
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements and the accompanying notes thereto, in conformity with GAAP, requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the respective reporting periods. Examples include the provision for bad debt, sales returns and allowances, inventory obsolescence, useful lives of property and equipment, impairment of property and equipment, income tax valuations and assumptions related to accrued advertising. When providing for the appropriate sales returns, allowances, cash discounts and cooperative incentive promotion costs (“sales allowances”), we apply a uniform and consistent method for making certain assumptions for estimating these provisions. These estimates and assumptions are based on historical experience, current trends and other factors that management believes to be relevant at the time the financial statements are prepared. Management reviews its accounting policies, assumptions, estimates and judgments on a quarterly basis. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
|Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash and Cash Equivalents
We consider all highly liquid investments with a maturity of three months or less at the time of purchase to be cash equivalents. Cash equivalents include cash on hand and monies invested in money market funds. The carrying amount approximates the fair market value due to the short-term maturity of these securities.
|Marketable Debt Securities
Marketable Debt Securities
We have classified our investments in marketable debt securities as available-for-sale and as a current asset. Our investments in marketable debt securities are carried at fair value, with unrealized gains and losses included as a separate component of stockholders’ equity. Realized gains and losses from our marketable debt securities are recorded as interest income (expense). We initiated short term investments in marketable debt securities, which carry maturity dates between one and three years from date of purchase with interest rates of 0.94% - 3.35% during the first three quarters of Fiscal 2020. For the three months and nine months ended September 30, 2020, we reported unrealized losses of $8,000 and $2,000, respectively. Unrealized gains and losses are classified as other comprehensive loss and the cost is determined on a specific identification basis. The following is a summary of the components of our marketable debt securities and the underlying fair value input level tier hierarchy (see fair value of financial instruments) (in thousands):
We believe that the unrealized gains or losses generally are the result of a change in the risk premiums required by market participants rather than an adverse change in cash flows or a fundamental weakness in the credit quality of the issuer or underlying assets.
Inventory is valued at the lower of cost, determined on a first-in, first-out basis (FIFO), or net realizable value. Inventory items are analyzed to determine cost and the net realizable value and appropriate valuation adjustments are then established. At September 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019, the financial statements include non-cash adjustments to adjust inventory for excess, obsolete or short-dated shelf-life inventory by $17,000 and $168,000, respectively. The components of inventory are as follows (in thousands):
|Property, Plant and Equipment
Property, Plant and Equipment
Property, plant and equipment are recorded at cost. We use the straight-line method in computing depreciation for financial reporting purposes. Depreciation expense is computed in accordance with the following ranges of estimated asset lives: building and improvements – ten to thirty-nine years; machinery and equipment – three to seven years; computer equipment and software – three to five years; and furniture and fixtures – five years. We did not identify any indicators of our property, plant and equipment for the nine months ended September 30, 2020 and 2019 and concluded there were no impairments or changes in useful lives.
|Concentration of Risks
Concentration of Risks
Future revenues, costs, margins and profits will continue to be influenced by our ability to generate revenue from our manufacturing operations, dietary supplement business and diagnostic lab testing services.
Our manufacturing operations and dietary supplement business is subject to federal and state laws and regulations adopted for the health and safety of users of our products. The manufacturing and distribution of OTC healthcare and dietary supplement products are subject to regulations by various federal, state and local agencies, including the Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”) and, as applicable, the Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia of the United States.
Financial instruments that potentially subject us to significant concentrations of credit risk consist principally of cash investments, marketable securities, notes receivable and trade accounts receivable. Our marketable securities are fixed income investments that are highly liquid and can be readily purchased or sold through established markets.
We maintain cash and cash equivalents with certain major financial institutions. As of September 30, 2020, our cash and cash equivalents balance was $10.9 million and our bank balance was $10.9 million. Of the total bank balance, $432,000 was covered by federal depository insurance and $10.5 million was uninsured at September 30, 2020.
Trade accounts receivable potentially subject us to credit concentrations from time-to-time as a consequence of the timing, payment pattern and ultimate purchase volumes or shipping schedules with our customers. We extend credit to our customers based upon an evaluation of the customer’s financial condition and credit history and generally we do not require collateral. Our customers include consumer products companies and large national chain, regional, specialty and local retail stores. These credit concentrations may impact our overall exposure to credit risk, either positively or negatively, in that our customers may be similarly affected by changes in economic, regulatory or other conditions that may impact the timing and collectability of amounts due to us. Based on our evaluation of our customer’s financial condition, payment patterns, balances due to us and other factors, we did not offset our account receivable with an allowance for bad debt at September 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019. We also assess our note holder’s (see Note 11) financial condition, balances due to us and other factors, and based on this assessment, we did not offset our note receivable with an allowance for bad debt at September 30, 2020.
We review the carrying value of our long-lived assets with definite lives whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the assets may not be recoverable. When indicators of impairment exist, we determine whether the estimated undiscounted sum of the future cash flows of such assets is less than their carrying amounts. If less, an impairment loss is recognized in the amount, if any, by which the carrying amount of such assets exceeds their respective fair values. The determination of fair value is based on quoted market prices in active markets, if available, or independent appraisals; sales price negotiations; or projected future cash flows discounted at a rate determined by management to be commensurate with our business risk. The estimation of fair value utilizing discounted forecasted cash flows includes significant judgments regarding assumptions of revenue, operating and marketing costs; selling and administrative expenses; interest rates; property and equipment additions and retirements; industry competition; and general economic and business conditions, among other factors.
|Fair Value of Financial Instruments
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
Fair value is based on the prices that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. In order to increase consistency and comparability in fair value measurements, a three-tier fair value hierarchy prioritizes the inputs used to measure fair value. These tiers include: Level 1, defined as observable inputs such as quoted prices in active markets; Level 2, defined as inputs other than quoted prices in active markets that are either directly or indirectly observable; and Level 3, defined as unobservable inputs for which little or no market data exists, therefore requiring an entity to develop its own assumptions.
Marketable securities and assets held for sale are reflected in the consolidated financial statements at carrying value which approximates fair value. We account for our marketable securities at fair value, with the net unrealized gains or losses reported as a component of accumulated other comprehensive income or loss. The components of marketable debt securities are as follows (in thousands):
We recognize revenue that represents the transfer of promised goods or services to customers at an amount that reflects the consideration that is expected to be received in exchange for those goods or services. We recognize revenue when performance obligations with our customers have been satisfied. At contract inception, we evaluate the contract to determine if revenue should be recognized using the following five steps: (1) identify the contract with the customer; (2) identify the performance obligations; (3) determine the transaction price; (4) allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations; and (5) recognize revenue when (or as) the entity satisfies a performance obligation.
We have historically generated sales principally through two types of customers, contract manufacturing and retail customers. Sales from product shipments to contract manufacturing and retailer customers are recognized at the time ownership is transferred to the customer. Net sales from contract manufacturing and retail customers were $3.6 million and $0.2 million, respectively, for the three months ended September 30, 2020 and $2.5 million and $0.2 million, respectively, for the three months ended September 30, 2019. Net sales from contract manufacturing and retail customers were $8.8 million and $0.5 million, respectively, for the nine months ended September 30, 2020 and $6.1 million and $0.6 million, respectively, for the nine months ended September 30, 2019. Revenue from retailer customers is reduced for trade promotions, estimated sales returns and other allowances in the same period as the related sales are recorded. No such allowance is applicable to our contract manufacturing customers. We estimate potential future product returns and other allowances related to current period revenue. We analyze historical returns, current trends, and changes in customer and consumer demand when evaluating the adequacy of the sales returns and other allowances.
A performance obligation is a promise in a contract to transfer a distinct good or service to the customer and is the unit of account. A contract’s transaction price is allocated to each distinct performance obligation and recognized as revenue when, or as, the performance obligation is satisfied. The combined duties and responsibilities within each contract are considered one single performance obligation as these items would not be separately identifiable from each other in the contract and we provide a significant service of integrating the duties with other promises in the contracts.
The transaction price is fixed based upon either (i) the terms of a combined Master Agreement and each related purchase order, or (ii) if there is no Master Agreement, the price per the individual purchase order received from each customer. The customers are invoiced at an agreed upon contractual price for each unit ordered and delivered by the Company and the research and development (“R&D”) services are recognized at the time the performance is completed.
The Company does not collect sales tax or other similar taxes from customers. As such, there is no effect on the measurement of the transaction price.
Recognize Revenue When the Company Satisfies a Performance Obligation
Performance obligations related to our contract manufacturing and sales to retail customers are satisfied at a point in time when the goods are shipped to the customer as (i) we have transferred control of the assets to the customers upon shipping, and (ii) the customer obtains title and assumes the risks and rewards of ownership after the goods are shipped.
We do not accept returns from our contract manufacturing customers. Our return policy for retailer customers accommodates returns for (i) discontinued products, (ii) store closings and (iii) products that have reached or exceeded their designated expiration date. We do not impose a period of time within which products must be returned. All requests for product returns must be submitted to us for pre-approval. The main components of our returns policy are: (i) we will accept returns that are due to damaged product that is un-saleable and such return request activity falls within an acceptable range, (ii) we will accept returns for products that have reached or exceeded designated expiration dates and (iii) we will accept returns in the event that we discontinue a product provided that the customer will have the right to return only such items that it purchased directly from us. We will not accept return requests pertaining to customer inventory “Overstocking” or “Resets”. We will accept return requests for only products in their intended package configuration. We reserve the right to terminate shipment of product to customers who have made unauthorized deductions contrary to our return policy or pursue other methods of reimbursement. We compensate the customer for authorized returns by means of a credit applied to amounts owed or to be owed and in the case of discontinued product only, also by way of an exchange. We do not have any significant product exchange history.
We continue to recognize revenue from contract manufacturing and retail customers at a point in time as we have an enforceable right to payment for goods as products are shipped to customers.
Accrued advertising and other allowances from continuing operations as of September 30, 2020 included (i) $272,000 for estimated returns and allowance which is reported as a liability and (ii) $397,000 for cooperative and incentive promotion costs which is also reported as a liability. Accrued advertising and other allowances from discontinued operations as of September 30, 2020 included (i) $26,000 for estimated returns, which is reported as a reduction to account receivables, and (ii) $14,000 for cooperative incentive promotion costs, which is reported as accrued advertising and other allowances under current liabilities. As of December 31, 2019, accrued advertising and other allowances from continuing operations included (i) $37,000 for estimated returns which is reported as a liability and (ii) $92,000 for cooperative and incentive promotion costs which is also reported as a liability. Accrued advertising and other allowances from discontinued operations as of December 31, 2019 included (i) $132,000 for estimated returns, which is reported as a reduction to account receivables, and (ii) $76,000 for cooperative incentive promotion costs, which is reported as accrued advertising and other allowances under current liabilities.
During the three months ended September 30, 2020, we experienced a reduction in the estimate for returns and cooperative and incentive allowance costs in the amount of $161,000 which was recognized as income from discontinued operations associated with the sale of the Cold-EEZE® Business.
As of September 30, 2020, we have deferred revenue of $319,000 in relation to R&D stability and release testing programs. As of December 31, 2019, deferred revenue was $214,000. Deferred revenues primarily consist of amounts that have been billed to or received from customers in advance of revenue recognition and prepayments received from customers in advance for implementation, maintenance and other services, as well as initial subscription fees. We recognize deferred revenues as revenues when the services are performed and the corresponding revenue recognition criteria are met. Customer prepayments are generally applied against invoices issued to customers when services are performed and billed.
The following table disaggregates the Company’s deferred revenue expected by recognition period (in thousands):
Disaggregation of Revenue
We disaggregate revenue from contracts with customers into two categories: contract manufacturing and retail customers. We determined that disaggregating revenue into these categories achieves the disclosure objective to depict how the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows are affected by economic factors.
The following table disaggregates the Company’s revenue by revenue source for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020 and 2019 (in thousands):
Sales Tax Exclusion from the Transaction Price
We exclude from the measurement of the transaction price all taxes assessed by a governmental authority that are both imposed on and concurrent with a specific revenue-producing transaction and collected by the Company from the customer.
Shipping and Handling Activities
We account for shipping and handling activities that we perform as activities to fulfill the promise to transfer the goods.
|Advertising and Incentive Promotions
Advertising and Incentive Promotions
Advertising and incentive promotion costs are expensed within the period in which they are utilized. Advertising and incentive promotion expense is comprised of (i) media advertising, presented as part of sales and marketing expense, (ii) cooperative incentive promotions and coupon program expenses, which are accounted for as part of net sales, and (iii) free product, which is accounted for as part of cost of sales. Advertising and incentive promotion expenses incurred from continuing operations for the three months ended September 30, 2020 and 2019 were $451,000 and $270,000, respectively. Advertising and incentive promotion expenses incurred from continuing operations for the nine months ended September 30, 2020 and 2019 were $547,000 and $352,000, respectively.
We recognize all share-based payments to employees and directors, including grants of stock options, as compensation expense in the financial statements based on their fair values. Fair values of stock options are determined through the use of the Black-Scholes option pricing model. The compensation cost is recognized as an expense over the requisite service period of the award, which usually coincides with the vesting period. We account for forfeitures as they occur.
Stock and stock options to purchase our common stock have been granted to employees pursuant to the terms of certain agreements and stock option plans (see Note 4). Stock options are exercisable during a period determined by us, but in no event later than seven years from the date granted. For the three months ended September 30, 2020 and 2019, we charged to operations $267,000 and $180,000, respectively, for share-based compensation expense for the aggregate fair value of stock grants issued and vested stock options earned. For the nine months ended September 30, 2020 and 2019, we charged to operations $663,000 and $556,000, respectively, for share-based compensation expense for the aggregate fair value of stock grants issued and vested stock options earned.
|Research and Development
Research and Development
R&D costs are charged to operations in the period incurred. R&D costs incurred for the three months ended September 30, 2020 and 2019 from continuing operations were $57,000 and $57,000, respectively. R&D costs incurred for the nine months ended September 30, 2020 and 2019 from continuing operations were $181,000 and $246,000, respectively. R&D costs are principally related to personnel expenses and new product development initiatives and costs associated with our OTC health care products, dietary supplements and other remedies.
We utilize the asset and liability approach which requires the recognition of deferred tax assets and liabilities for the future tax consequences of events that have been recognized in our financial statements or tax returns. In estimating future tax consequences, we generally consider all expected future events other than enactments of changes in the tax law or rates. Until sufficient taxable income to offset the temporary timing differences attributable to operations and the tax deductions attributable to option, warrant and stock activities are assured, a valuation allowance equaling the total deferred tax asset is being provided.
We utilize a two-step approach to recognizing and measuring uncertain tax positions. The first step is to evaluate the tax position for recognition by determining if the weight of available evidence indicates that it is more likely than not that the position will be sustained on audit, including resolution of related appeals or litigation processes, if any. The second step is to measure the tax benefit as the largest amount that is more than fifty percent likely of being realized upon ultimate settlement. Any interest or penalties related to income taxes will be recorded as interest or administrative expense, respectively.
As a result of our historical losses from continuing operations, we have recorded a full valuation allowance against a net deferred tax asset. Additionally, we have not recorded a liability for unrecognized tax benefit.
|Recently Issued Accounting Standards, Not Yet Adopted
Recently Issued Accounting Standards, Not Yet Adopted
In September 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued ASU 2016-13, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (Topic 326). The ASU sets forth a “current expected credit loss” (CECL) model which requires the Company to measure all expected credit losses for financial instruments held at the reporting date based on historical experience, current conditions, and reasonable supportable forecasts. This replaces the existing incurred loss model and is applicable to the measurement of credit losses on financial assets measured at amortized cost and applies to some off-balance sheet credit exposures. In February 2020, the FASB issued ASU 2020-02, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (Topic 326), which amends the effective date of the original pronouncement for smaller reporting companies. ASU 2016-13 and its amendments will be effective for the Company for interim and annual periods in fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2022. The Company is currently assessing the impact of the adoption of this standard on its financial statements.
In December 2019, the FASB issued ASU No. 2019-12, “Income Taxes (Topic 740): Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes (“ASU 2019-12”), which is intended to simplify various aspects related to accounting for income taxes. ASU 2019-12 removes certain exceptions to the general principles in Topic 740 and also clarifies and amends existing guidance to improve consistent application. This guidance is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2020, with early adoption permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of this standard on its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.