Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2019
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
Note 2 – Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
For Fiscal 2019 and 2018, our revenues from continuing operations have come principally from our OTC healthcare and dietary supplement contract manufacturing business and sales to retail customers of dietary supplement product.
Basis of Presentation
The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its wholly-owned subsidiaries. All intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated.
Product Innovation, Seasonality of the Business and Liquidity
Our net sales are derived principally from our contract manufacturing of OTC healthcare and dietary supplement products sold in the United States. In addition, we are engaged in market activities for the TK Supplements® product line of dietary supplements.
Our sales are influenced by and subject to (i) the timing of acceptance of our TK Supplement® products in the marketplace, and (ii) fluctuations in the timing of purchase and the ultimate level of demand for the OTC healthcare and cold remedy products that we manufacture for others, which are a function of the timing, length and severity of each cold season. Generally, a cold season is defined as the period from September to March when the incidence of the common cold rises as a consequence of the change in weather and other factors. We generally experience in the first, third and fourth quarter higher levels of net sales from our contract manufacturing of OTC healthcare and cold remedy products. Revenues are generally at their lowest levels in the second quarter when customer demand generally declines.
As a consequence of the timing of acceptance of our TK Supplements® products in the marketplace and the seasonality of our business, we realize variations in operating results and demand for working capital from quarter to quarter. As of December 31, 2019, we had working capital of approximately $9.0 million, including $0.9 million marketable securities available for sale. We believe our current working capital at December 31, 2019 is at an acceptable and adequate level to support our business for at least the next twelve months.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements and the accompanying notes thereto, in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America (“GAAP”), requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the respective reporting periods. Examples include the provision for bad debt, sales returns and allowances, inventory obsolescence, useful lives of property and equipment, impairment of property and equipment, income tax valuations and assumptions related to accrued advertising. When providing for the appropriate sales returns, allowances, cash discounts and cooperative incentive promotion costs (“sales allowances”), we apply a uniform and consistent method for making certain assumptions for estimating these provisions. These estimates and assumptions are based on historical experience, current trends and other factors that management believes to be relevant at the time the financial statements are prepared. Management reviews the accounting policies, assumptions, estimates and judgments on a quarterly basis. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
We consider all highly liquid investments with an initial maturity of three months or less at the time of purchase to be cash equivalents. Cash equivalents include cash on hand and monies invested in money market funds. The carrying amount approximates the fair market value due to the short-term maturity of these investments.
We have classified our investments in marketable securities as available-for-sale and as a current asset. Our investments in marketable securities are carried at fair value, with unrealized gains and losses included as a separate component of stockholders’ equity. Realized gains and losses from our marketable securities are recorded as other interest income (expense). We initiated short term investments in marketable securities, which carry maturity dates between one and three years from date of purchase with interest rates of 1.65% - 3.09%, during Fiscal 2019. For Fiscal 2019 and 2018, we reported an unrealized gain of $22,000 and $54,000, respectively. We had an accumulated unrealized loss of $2,000 and $24,000 as of December 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively. Unrealized gains and losses are classified as other comprehensive income (loss) and cost is determined on a specific identification basis. The following is a summary of the components of our marketable securities and the underlying fair value input level tier hierarchy (see long-lived assets below) (in thousands):
We have determined that the unrealized losses are deemed to be temporary as of December 31, 2019. We believe that the unrealized losses generally are the result of increases in the risk premiums required by market participants rather than an adverse change in cash flows or a fundamental weakness in the credit quality of the issuer or underlying assets. We have the ability and intent to hold these investments until a recovery of fair value, which may be maturity. We do not consider the investment in corporate bonds to be other-than-temporarily impaired at December 31, 2019.
Inventory is valued at the lower of cost, determined on a first-in, first-out basis (FIFO), or net realizable value. Inventory items are analyzed to determine cost and the net realizable value and appropriate valuation adjustments are established. During 2019 and 2018, the Company wrote off certain inventory previously recorded. At December 31, 2019 and 2018, the financial statements include non-cash adjustments to reduce inventory for excess, obsolete or short-dated shelf-life inventory of $168,000 and $103,000, respectively. The components of inventory are as follows (in thousands):
Property, Plant and Equipment
Property, plant and equipment are recorded at cost. We use the straight-line method in computing depreciation for financial reporting purposes. Depreciation expense is computed in accordance with the following ranges of estimated asset lives: building and improvements – ten to thirty-nine years; machinery and equipment – three to seven years; computer equipment and software – three to five years; and furniture and fixtures – five years.
Concentration of Risks
Future revenues, costs, margins and profits will continue to be influenced by our ability to maintain our manufacturing availability and capacity together with our marketing and distribution capabilities and the regulatory requirements associated with the development of OTC consumer healthcare products, dietary supplements and other remedies in order to compete on a national level and/or international level.
Our business is subject to federal and state laws and regulations adopted for the health and safety of users of our products. The manufacturing and distribution of OTC healthcare and dietary supplement products are subject to regulations by various federal, state and local agencies, including the Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”) and, as applicable, the Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia of the United States.
Financial instruments that potentially subject us to significant concentrations of credit risk consist principally of cash investments, marketable securities, and trade accounts receivable. Our marketable securities are fixed income investments, which are highly liquid and can be readily purchased or sold through established markets.
We maintain cash and cash equivalents with certain major financial institutions. As of December 31, 2019, our cash and cash equivalents balance was $0.4 million and our bank balance was $0.5 million. Of the total bank balance, $335,000 was covered by federal depository insurance and $176,000 was uninsured at December 31, 2019.
Trade accounts receivable potentially subject us to credit concentrations from time-to-time as a consequence of the timing, payment pattern and ultimate purchase volumes or shipping schedules with our customers. We extend credit to our customers based upon an evaluation of the customer’s financial condition and credit history and generally we do not require collateral. Our customers include consumer products companies and large national chain, regional, specialty and local retail stores. These credit concentrations may impact our overall exposure to credit risk, either positively or negatively, in that our customers may be similarly affected by changes in economic, regulatory or other conditions that may impact the timing and collectability of amounts due to us. As a consequence of an evaluation of our customer’s financial condition, payment patterns, balance due to us and other factors, we did not offset our account receivable with an allowance for bad debt at December 31, 2019 and 2018.
We review the carrying value of our long-lived assets with definite lives whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the assets may not be recoverable. When indicators of impairment exist, we determine whether the estimated undiscounted sum of the future cash flows of such assets is less than their carrying amounts. If less, an impairment loss is recognized in the amount, if any, by which the carrying amount of such assets exceeds their respective fair values. The determination of fair value is based on quoted market prices in active markets, if available, or independent appraisals; sales price negotiations; or projected future cash flows discounted at a rate determined by management to be commensurate with our business risk. The estimation of fair value utilizing discounted forecasted cash flows includes significant judgments regarding assumptions of revenue, operating and marketing costs; selling and administrative expenses; interest rates; property and equipment additions and retirements; industry competition; and general economic and business conditions, among other factors.
Fair value is based on the prices that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. In order to increase consistency and comparability in fair value measurements, a three-tier fair value hierarchy prioritizes the inputs used to measure fair value. These tiers include: Level 1, defined as observable inputs such as quoted prices in active markets; Level 2, defined as inputs other than quoted prices in active markets that are either directly or indirectly observable; and Level 3, defined as unobservable inputs for which little or no market data exists, therefore requiring an entity to develop its own assumptions.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
Cash and cash equivalents, marketable securities, accounts receivable, assets held for sale, accounts payable, and accrued expenses are reflected in the consolidated financial statements at carrying value which approximates fair value. We account for our marketable securities at fair value pursuant to Accounting Standards Codification, or ASC, 820-10, with the net unrealized gains or losses reported as a component of accumulated other comprehensive income or loss.
There were no transfers of marketable securities between Levels 1, 2 or 3 for the Fiscal 2019 and 2018.
We account for revenue in accordance with ASC 606, which requires revenue recognized to represent the transfer of promised goods or services to customers at an amount that reflects the consideration which is expected to be received in exchange for those goods or services. We recognize revenue when performance obligations with our customers have been satisfied. At contract inception, we determine if a contract is within the scope of ASC Topic 606 and then evaluate the contract using the following five steps: (1) identify the contract with the customer; (2) identify the performance obligations; (3) determine the transaction price; (4) allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations; and (5) recognize revenue when (or as) the entity satisfies a performance obligation.
We adopted ASC 606 as of January 1, 2018 using the modified retrospective method. For the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, there were no changes to our opening balances upon the adoption of ASC 606 and the amounts which would have been reported under the standards in effect prior to adoption.
We generate sales principally through two types of customers, contract manufacturing and retail customers. Sales from product shipments to contract manufacturing and retailer customers are recognized at the time ownership is transferred to the customer. Net sales from OTC healthcare contract manufacturing and retail dietary supplement product customers were $9.0 million and $0.9 million, respectively, for Fiscal 2019 and $12.6 million and $0.5 million, respectively, for Fiscal 2018. Revenue from retailer customers is reduced for trade promotions, estimated sales returns, cash discounts and other allowances in the same period as the related sales are recorded. No such allowance is applicable to our contract manufacturing customers. We make estimates of potential future product returns and other allowances related to current period revenue. We analyze historical returns, current trends, and changes in customer and consumer demand when evaluating the adequacy of the sales returns and other allowances.
A performance obligation is a promise in a contract to transfer a distinct good or service to the customer and is the unit of account in accordance with ASC 606. A contract’s transaction price is allocated to each distinct performance obligation and recognized as revenue when, or as, the performance obligation is satisfied. The combined duties and responsibilities within each contract will be considered one single performance obligation under ASC 606 as these items would not be separately identifiable from each other promise in the contract and we provide a significant service of integrating the duties with other promises in the contracts.
The transaction price is fixed based upon either (i) a combined Master Agreement and each related purchase order, or (ii) if there is no Master Agreement, the price per the individual purchase order received from each customer. The customers are invoiced at an agreed upon contractual price for each unit ordered and delivered by us.
Consistent with Company practice prior to the adoption of ASC 606, we do not collect sales tax or other similar taxes from customers. As such, there is no effect on the measurement of the transaction price.
Recognize Revenue When the Company Satisfies a Performance Obligation
Performance obligations related to contract manufacturing and retail customers are satisfied at a point in time when the goods are shipped to the customer as (i) we have transferred control of the assets to the customers upon shipping, and (ii) the customer obtains title and assumes the risks and rewards of ownership after the goods are shipped.
We do not accept returns in the contract manufacturing revenue stream. Our return policy for retailer customers accommodates returns for (i) discontinued products, (ii) store closings and (iii) products that have reached or exceeded their designated expiration date. We do not impose a period of time within which product may be returned. All requests for product returns must be submitted to us for pre-approval. The main components of our returns policy are: (i) we will accept returns that are due to damaged product that is un-saleable and such return request activity falls within an acceptable range, (ii) we will accept returns for products that have reached or exceeded designated expiration dates and (iii) we will accept returns in the event that we discontinue a product provided that the customer will have the right to return only such items that it purchased directly from us. We will not accept return requests pertaining to customer inventory “Overstocking” or “Resets”. We will accept return requests for only products in its intended package configuration. We reserve the right to terminate shipment of product to customers who have made unauthorized deductions contrary to our return policy or pursue other methods of reimbursement. We compensate the customer for authorized returns by means of a credit applied to amounts owed or to be owed and in the case of discontinued product only, also by way of an exchange. We do not have any significant product exchange history.
Under ASC 606, we continue to recognize revenue from contract manufacturing and retail customers at a point in time as we have an enforceable right to payment for goods as products are shipped to customers.
As of December 31, 2019 and 2018, we included a provision for sales allowances from continuing operations of $0 and $1,000, respectively, which are reported as a reduction to account receivables. Additionally, accrued advertising and other allowances from continuing operations as of December 31, 2019 included (i) $37,000 for estimated returns which is reported as a liability and (ii) $92,000 for corporative and incentive promotion costs which is also reported as a liability. In addition, accrued advertising and other allowances from discontinued operations as of December 31, 2019 included (i) $132,000 for estimated returns, which is reported as a reduction to account receivables, and (ii) $76,000 for cooperative incentive promotion costs, which is reported as accrued advertising and other allowances under current liabilities. As of December 31, 2018, accrued advertising and other allowances from discontinued operations included (i) $181,000 for estimated future sales returns, which is reported as a reduction to account receivables, and (ii) $88,000 for cooperative incentive promotion costs, which is reported as accrued advertising and other allowances under current liabilities.
As of December 31, 2019, we have deferred revenue of $214,000 in relation to Research and Development (“R&D”) stability and release testing programs. As of December 31, 2018, deferred revenue was $206,000. Deferred revenues primarily consist of amounts that have been billed to or received from customers in advance of revenue recognition and prepayments received from customers in advance for implementation, maintenance and other services, as well as initial subscription fees. We recognize deferred revenues as revenues when the services are performed and the corresponding revenue recognition criteria are met. Customer prepayments are generally applied against invoices issued to customers when services are performed and billed.
The following table disaggregates the Company’s deferred revenue by recognition period (in thousands):
Disaggregation of Revenue
We disaggregate revenue from contracts with customers into two categories: contract manufacturing and retail customers. We determined that disaggregating revenue into these categories achieves the disclosure objective to depict how the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows are affected by economic factors.
The following table disaggregates the Company’s revenue by revenue source for Fiscal 2019 and 2018 (in thousands):
Practical Expedients Elected
We have elected the following practical expedients in applying ASC 606 across all revenue relationships.
Sales Tax Exclusion from the Transaction Price
We exclude from the measurement of the transaction price all taxes assessed by a governmental authority that are both imposed on and concurrent with a specific revenue-producing transaction and collected by the Company from the customer.
Shipping and Handling Activities
We account for shipping and handling activities that we perform as activities to fulfill the promise to transfer the good.
Advertising and Incentive Promotions
Advertising and incentive promotion costs are expensed within the period in which they are utilized. Advertising and incentive promotion expense is comprised of (i) media advertising, presented as part of sales and marketing expense, (ii) cooperative incentive promotions and coupon program expenses, which are accounted for as part of net sales, and (iii) free product, which is accounted for as part of cost of sales. Advertising and incentive promotion expenses (i) incurred from continuing operations for Fiscal 2019 and 2018 were $443,000 and $264,000, respectively.
We recognize all share-based payments to employees and directors, including grants of stock options, as compensation expense in the financial statements based on their fair values. Fair values of stock options are determined through the use of the Black-Scholes option pricing model. The compensation cost is recognized as an expense over the requisite service period of the award, which usually coincides with the vesting period. We account for forfeitures as they occur.
Stock and stock options for the purchase of our common stock, $0.0005 par value (“Common Stock”), have been granted to both employees and non-employees pursuant to the terms of certain agreements and stock option plans (see Note 5). Stock options are exercisable during a period determined by us, but in no event later than ten years from the date granted.
Research and Development
R&D costs are charged to operations in the period incurred R&D costs incurred for Fiscal 2019 and 2018 (i) from continuing operations were $332,000 and $398,000, respectively. R&D costs are principally related to personnel expenses and new product development initiatives and costs associated with our OTC health care products, dietary supplements and other remedies.
We utilize the asset and liability approach which requires the recognition of deferred tax assets and liabilities for the future tax consequences of events that have been recognized in our financial statements or tax returns. In estimating future tax consequences, we generally consider all expected future events other than enactments of changes in the tax law or rates. Until sufficient taxable income to offset the temporary timing differences attributable to operations and the tax deductions attributable to option, warrant and stock activities are assured, a valuation allowance equaling the total deferred tax asset is being provided.
We utilize a two-step approach to recognizing and measuring uncertain tax positions. The first step is to evaluate the tax position for recognition by determining if the weight of available evidence indicates that it is more likely than not that the position will be sustained on audit, including resolution of related appeals or litigation processes, if any. The second step is to measure the tax benefit as the largest amount which is more than fifty percent likely of being realized upon ultimate settlement. Any interest or penalties related to income taxes will be recorded as interest or administrative expense, respectively.
As a result of our losses from continuing operations, we have recorded a full valuation allowance against a net deferred tax asset. Additionally, we have not recorded a liability for unrecognized tax benefit.
Recently Adopted Accounting Standards
In February 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842) in order to increase transparency and comparability among organizations by, among other provisions, recognizing lease assets and lease liabilities on the balance sheet for those leases classified as operating leases under previous GAAP. For public companies, ASU 2016-02 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018 (including interim periods within those periods) using a modified retrospective approach and early adoption is permitted. In transition, entities may also elect a package of practical expedients that must be applied in its entirety to all leases commencing before the adoption date, unless the lease is modified, and permits entities to not reassess (a) the existence of a lease, (b) lease classification or (c) determination of initial direct costs, as of the adoption date, which effectively allows entities to carryforward accounting conclusions under previous GAAP. In July 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-11, Leases (Topic 842): Targeted Improvements, which provides entities an optional transition method to apply the guidance under Topic 842 as of the adoption date, rather than as of the earliest period presented. We adopted Topic 842 on January 1, 2019, using the optional transition method to apply the new guidance as of January 1, 2019, rather than as of the earliest period presented, and elected the package of practical expedients described above. The adoption of this standard did not have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.
In June 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-07 “Improvements to Nonemployee Share-Based Payment Accounting”, which simplifies the accounting for share-based payments granted to nonemployees for goods and services. Under the ASU, most of the guidance on such payments to nonemployees would be aligned with the requirements for share-based payments granted to employees. The amendments are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, and interim periods within fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2020. Early adoption is permitted, but not earlier than an entity’s adoption date of Topic 606. We adopted this standard on January 1, 2019. The adoption of this standard did not have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.
Recently Issued Accounting Standards, Not Yet Adopted
In September 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (Topic 326). The ASU sets forth a “current expected credit loss” (CECL) model which requires the Company to measure all expected credit losses for financial instruments held at the reporting date based on historical experience, current conditions, and reasonable supportable forecasts. This replaces the existing incurred loss model and is applicable to the measurement of credit losses on financial assets measured at amortized cost and applies to some off-balance sheet credit exposures. In February 2020, the FASB issued ASU 2020-02, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (Topic 326), which amends the effective date of the original pronouncement for smaller reporting companies. ASU 2016-13 and its amendments will be effective for the Company for interim and annual periods in fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2022. The Company is currently assessing the impact of the adoption of this ASU on its financial statements.
In December 2019, the FASB issued ASU No. 2019-12, “Income Taxes (Topic 740): Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes (“ASU 2019-12”), which is intended to simplify various aspects related to accounting for income taxes. ASU 2019-12 removes certain exceptions to the general principles in Topic 740 and also clarifies and amends existing guidance to improve consistent application. This guidance is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2020, with early adoption permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of this standard on its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef