Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|9 Months Ended|
Sep. 30, 2012
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Significant Accounting Policies [Text Block]||
Note 2 – Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation
The unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles for interim financial statements and within the rules of the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) applicable to interim financial statements and therefore do not include all disclosures that might normally be required for financial statements prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States (“GAAP”). The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared by management without audit and should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements, including the notes thereto, appearing in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2011. In the opinion of management, all adjustments necessary for a fair presentation of the consolidated financial position, consolidated results of operations and consolidated cash flows, for the periods indicated, have been made. The results of operations for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2012 are not necessarily indicative of operating results that may be achieved over the course of the full year.
Seasonality of the Business
Our net sales are derived principally from our OTC cold remedy products. Currently, our sales are influenced by and subject to fluctuations in the timing of purchase and the ultimate level of demand for our products which are a function of the timing, length and severity of each cold season. Generally, a cold season is defined as the period of September to March when the incidence of the common cold rises as a consequence of the change in weather and other factors. We generally experience in the third and fourth quarter higher levels of net sales along with a corresponding increase in marketing and advertising expenditures designed to promote our products during the cold season. Revenues and related marketing costs are generally at their lowest levels in the second quarter when consumer demand generally declines and retail customers’ balance their inventory positions as cold season consumer demand subsides. We track health and wellness trends and develop retail promotional strategies to align our production scheduling, inventory management and marketing programs to optimize consumer purchases.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements and the accompanying notes thereto, in conformity with GAAP, requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the respective reporting periods. Examples include the provision for bad debt, sales returns and allowances, inventory obsolescence, useful lives of property and equipment and intangible assets, impairment of property and equipment and intangible assets, income tax valuations and assumptions related to accrued advertising. When providing for the appropriate sales returns, allowances, cash discounts and cooperative incentive promotion costs (“Sales Allowances”), we apply a uniform and consistent method for making certain assumptions for estimating these provisions. These estimates and assumptions are based on historical experience, current trends and other factors that management believes to be relevant at the time the financial statements are prepared. Management reviews the accounting policies, assumptions, estimates and judgments on a quarterly basis. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Our primary product, Cold-EEZEÒ lozenges, utilizes a proprietary zinc formulation which has been clinically proven to reduce the severity and duration of common cold symptoms. Factors considered in estimating the appropriate sales returns and allowances for this product include it being (i) a unique product with limited competitors, (ii) competitively priced, (iii) promoted, (iv) unaffected for remaining shelf-life as there is no product expiration date and (v) monitored for inventory levels at major customers and third-party consumption data. In addition to Cold-EEZE® lozenges we market and distribute Cold-EEZE® Oral Spray, Cold-EEZE® Cold Remedy Daytime/Nighttime QuickMelts® and Kids-EEZE® soft chew children’s OTC cold remedies (“Kids-EEZE® Products”). We also manufacture, market and distribute an organic cough drop and a Vitamin C supplement (“Organix®”). Each of the Cold-EEZE® Oral Spray products, Cold-EEZE® Cold Remedy Daytime/Nighttime QuickMelts®, Kids-EEZE® Products and Organix® products carry shelf-life expiration dates for which we aggregate such new product market experience data and update our sales returns and allowances estimates accordingly. Sales allowances estimates are tracked at the specific customer and product line levels and are tested on an annual historical basis, and reviewed quarterly. Additionally, we monitor current developments by customer, market conditions and any other occurrences that could affect the expected provisions relative to net sales for the period presented.
We consider all highly liquid investments with a maturity of three months or less at the time of purchase to be cash equivalents. Cash equivalents include cash on hand and monies invested in money market funds. The carrying amount approximates the fair market value due to the short-term maturity of these investments.
Inventory is valued at the lower of cost, determined on a first-in, first-out basis (FIFO), or market. Inventory items are analyzed to determine cost and the market value and appropriate valuation adjustments are established. At September 30, 2012 and December 31, 2011, inventory included raw material, work in progress and packaging amounts of $1.4 million and $981,000 respectively, and finished goods of $2.0 million and $1.7 million, respectively.
Property, Plant and Equipment
Property, plant and equipment are recorded at cost. We compute depreciation using the straight-line method for financial reporting purposes. Depreciation expense is computed in accordance with the following ranges of estimated asset lives: building and improvements - fifteen to thirty-nine years; machinery and equipment - three to seven years; computer software - three years; and furniture and fixtures – five years.
Concentration of Risks
Future revenues, costs, margins, and profits will continue to be influenced by our ability to maintain our manufacturing availability and capacity together with our marketing and distribution capabilities and the regulatory requirements associated with the development of OTC drug, personal care or other products in order to continue to compete on a national level and/or international level.
Our business is subject to federal and state laws and regulations adopted for the health and safety of users of our products. Our OTC cold remedy products are subject to regulations by various federal, state and local agencies, including the Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”) and, as applicable, the Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia of the United States.
Financial instruments that potentially subject us to significant concentrations of credit risk consist principally of cash investments and trade accounts receivable.
We maintain cash and cash equivalents with certain major financial institutions. As of September 30, 2012, our cash balance was $1.8 million and our bank balance was $2.4 million. Of the total bank balance, $766,000 was covered by federal depository insurance and $1.6 million was uninsured at September 30, 2012.
Trade accounts receivable potentially subject us to credit concentrations from time-to-time as a consequence of the timing, payment pattern and ultimate purchase volumes or shipping schedules with our customers. We extend credit to our customers based upon an evaluation of the customer’s financial condition and credit history and generally we do not require collateral. Our broad range of customers includes many large wholesalers, mass merchandisers and multi-outlet pharmacy and chain drug stores. These credit concentrations may impact our overall exposure to credit risk, either positively or negatively, in that our customers may be similarly affected by changes in economic, regulatory or other conditions that may impact the timing and collectability of amounts due to us. Our largest accounts receivable balances are with five customers representing approximately 68.3% and 52.7% of total trade receivable balances at September 30, 2012 and December 31, 2011, respectively. Three of such customers represented approximately 56.2% of total trade receivable balances at September 30, 2012. Two of such customers represented approximately 34.4% of total trade receivable balances at December 31, 2011, respectively.
Our revenues are principally generated from the sale of OTC cold remedy products which represented approximately 92% and 95% of total revenues for the nine months ended September 30, 2012 and 2011, respectively. A significant portion of our business is highly seasonal, which causes major variations in operating results from quarter to quarter. The third and fourth quarters generally represent the largest sales volume for the OTC cold remedy products. For the three and nine months ended September 30, 2012 and 2011, our net sales were principally related to domestic markets.
Raw materials used in the production of our products are available from numerous sources. Certain raw material active ingredients used in connection with Cold-EEZE® products are purchased from a single unaffiliated supplier. Should the relationship terminate or the vendor become unable to supply material, we believe that the current contingency plans would prevent a termination from materially affecting our operations. However, if the relationship was terminated, there may be delays in production of our products until an acceptable replacement supplier is located.
We review our carrying value of our long-lived assets with definite lives whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the assets may not be recoverable. When indicators of impairment exist, we determine whether the estimated undiscounted sum of the future cash flows of such assets is less than their carrying amounts. If less, an impairment loss is recognized in the amount, if any, by which the carrying amount of such assets exceeds their respective fair values. The determination of fair value is based on quoted market prices in active markets, if available, or independent appraisals; sales price negotiations; or projected future cash flows discounted at a rate determined by management to be commensurate with our business risk. The estimation of fair value utilizing discounted forecasted cash flows includes significant judgments regarding assumptions of revenue, operating and marketing costs; selling and administrative expenses; interest rates; property and equipment additions and retirements; industry competition; and general economic and business conditions, among other factors.
Fair value is based on the prices that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. In order to increase consistency and comparability in fair value measurements, a three-tier fair value hierarchy prioritizes the inputs used to measure fair value. These tiers include: Level 1, defined as observable inputs such as quoted prices in active markets; Level 2, defined as inputs other than quoted prices in active markets that are either directly or indirectly observable; and Level 3, defined as unobservable inputs for which little or no market data exists, therefore requiring an entity to develop its own assumptions.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
Cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable and accounts payable are reflected in the Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements at carrying value which approximates fair value because of the short-term maturity of these instruments. Determination of fair value of related party payables, if any, is not practicable due to their related party nature.
Sales are recognized at the time ownership is transferred to the customer. Revenue is reduced for trade promotions, estimated sales returns, cash discounts and other allowances in the same period as the related sales are recorded. We make estimates of potential future product returns and other allowances related to current period revenue. We analyze historical returns, current trends, and changes in customer and consumer demand when evaluating the adequacy of the sales returns and other allowances.
We do not impose a period of time within which product may be returned. All requests for product returns must be submitted to us for pre-approval. The main components of our returns policy are: (i) we will accept returns that are due to damaged product that is un-saleable and such return request activity falls within an acceptable range, (ii) we will accept returns for products that have reached or exceeded designated expiration dates and (iii) we will accept returns in the event that we discontinue a product provided that the customer will have the right to return only such items that it purchased directly from us. We will not accept return requests pertaining to customer inventory “Overstocking” or “Resets”. We will only accept return requests for product in its intended package configuration. We reserve the right to terminate shipment of product to customers who have made unauthorized deductions contrary to our return policy or pursue other methods of reimbursement. We compensate the customer for authorized returns by means of a credit applied to amounts owed or to be owed and in the case of discontinued product only, also by way of an exchange. We do not have any significant product exchange history.
As of September 30, 2012 and December 31, 2011, we included a provision for sales allowances of $93,000 and $101,000, respectively, which are reported as a reduction to account receivables. We also included an estimate of the uncollectability of our accounts receivable as an allowance for doubtful accounts of $37,000 and zero as of September 30, 2012 and December 31, 2011, respectively. Additionally, accrued advertising and other allowances as of September 30, 2012 included $1.3 million for estimated future sales returns and $822,000 for cooperative incentive promotion costs. As of December 31, 2011 accrued advertising and other allowances included $1.7 million for estimated future sales returns, $1.0 million for cooperative incentive promotion costs and $279,000 for certain other advertising and marketing promotions.
Shipping and Handling
Product sales carry shipping and handling charges to the purchaser, included as part of the invoiced price, which is classified as revenue. In all cases, costs related to this revenue are recorded in cost of sales.
We recognize all share-based payments to employees and directors, including grants of stock options, as compensation expense in the financial statements based on their fair values. Fair values of stock options are determined through the use of the Black-Scholes option pricing model. The compensation cost is recognized as an expense over the requisite service period of the award, which usually coincides with the vesting period.
Stock and stock options for the purchase of our common stock, $0.0005 par value (“Common Stock”), have been granted to both employees and non-employees pursuant to the terms of certain agreements and stock option plans (see Note 5). Stock options are exercisable during a period determined by us, but in no event later than ten years from the date granted. For the three months ended September 30, 2012 and 2011, we charged to operations $45,000 and $125,000, respectively, for share-based compensation expense for the aggregate fair value of stock grants issued and vested stock options earned. For the nine months ended September 30, 2012 and 2011, we charged to operations $208,000 and $316,000, respectively, for share-based compensation expense for the aggregate fair value of stock grants issued and vested stock options earned.
Variable Interest Entity
On March 22, 2010, the Company, Phosphagenics Limited (“PSI Parent”), an Australian corporation, Phosphagenics Inc. (“PSI”), a Delaware corporation and subsidiary of PSI Parent, and Phusion Laboratories, LLC (the “Joint Venture”), a Delaware limited liability company, entered into a Limited Liability Company Agreement (the “LLC Agreement”) of the Joint Venture and additional related agreements for the purpose of developing and commercializing, for worldwide distribution and sale, a wide range of non-prescription remedies using PSI Parent’s proprietary patented TPM™ technology (“TPM”). TPM facilitates the delivery and depth of penetration of active molecules in pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, and other products. Pursuant to the LLC Agreement, we and PSI each own a 50% membership interest in the Joint Venture. The Joint Venture, of which we own a 50% membership interest, qualifies as a variable interest entity (“VIE”), we are the current primary beneficiary and we have consolidated the Joint Venture beginning with the quarter ended March 31, 2010. Expenses incurred to date by the Joint Venture have been principally for certain product research and development activities which have been charged to research and development expense by the Company.
Advertising and Incentive Promotions
Advertising and incentive promotion costs are expensed within the period in which they are utilized. Advertising and incentive promotion expense is comprised of media advertising, presented as part of sales and marketing expense, cooperative incentive promotions and coupon program expenses, which are accounted for as part of net sales, and free product, which is accounted for as part of cost of sales. Advertising and incentive promotion costs incurred for the three months ended September 30, 2012 and 2011 were $1.3 million and $1.7 million, respectively. Advertising and incentive promotion costs incurred for the nine months ended September 30, 2012 and 2011 were $5.5 million and $3.9 million, respectively. Included in prepaid expenses and other current assets was $947,000 and $1.2 million at September 30, 2012 and December 31, 2011, respectively, relating to prepaid advertising and promotion expenses.
Research and Development
Research and development costs are charged to operations in the period incurred. Research and development costs for the three months ended September 30, 2012 and 2011 were $165,000 and $198,000, respectively. Research and development costs for the nine months ended September 30, 2012 and 2011 were $1.0 million and $594,000, respectively. Research and development costs are principally related to new product development initiatives and costs associated with our OTC cold remedy products.
We utilize the asset and liability approach which requires the recognition of deferred tax assets and liabilities for the future tax consequences of events that have been recognized in our financial statements or tax returns. In estimating future tax consequences, we generally consider all expected future events other than enactments of changes in the tax law or rates. Until sufficient taxable income to offset the temporary timing differences attributable to operations and the tax deductions attributable to option, warrant and stock activities are assured, a valuation allowance equaling the total deferred tax asset is being provided (see Note 6).
We utilize a two-step approach to recognizing and measuring uncertain tax positions. The first step is to evaluate the tax position for recognition by determining if the weight of available evidence indicates that it is more likely than not that the position will be sustained on audit, including resolution of related appeals or litigation processes, if any. The second step is to measure the tax benefit as the largest amount which is more than fifty percent likely of being realized upon ultimate settlement. Any interest or penalties related to uncertain tax positions will be recorded as interest or administrative expense, respectively.
As a result of our continuing tax losses, we have recorded a full valuation allowance against a net deferred tax asset. Additionally, we have not recorded a liability for unrecognized tax benefits. The tax years 2004 through 2011 remain open to examination by the major taxing jurisdictions to which we are subject.
Recently Issued Accounting Standards
In June 2011, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2011-05, “Comprehensive Income (ASC Topic 220): Presentation of Comprehensive Income,” (“ASU 2011-05”) which amends current comprehensive income guidance. This accounting update eliminates the option to present the components of other comprehensive income as part of the statement of shareholders’ equity. Instead, comprehensive income must be presented in either a single continuous statement of comprehensive income which contains two sections, net income and other comprehensive income, or in two separate but consecutive statements. ASU 2011-05 is effective for fiscal periods beginning after December 15, 2011. The adoption of ASU 2011-05 did not have a material impact on our consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
In September 2011, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2011-08, “Intangibles – Goodwill and Other Topics” (“ASU 2011-08”) which provides authoritative guidance on testing goodwill for impairment that became effective beginning January 1, 2012, with earlier adoption permitted. The revised standard is intended to reduce the cost and complexity of the annual goodwill impairment test by providing entities an option to first assess qualitative factors to determine whether it is necessary to perform the two-step quantitative goodwill impairment test. Under ASU 2011-08, an entity would not be required to calculate the fair value of a reporting unit unless the entity determines, based on a qualitative assessment, that it is more likely than not that its fair value is less than its carrying amount. The amendments include a number of events and circumstances for an entity to consider in conducting the qualitative assessment. The adoption of ASU 2011-08 did not have a material impact on our consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef